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Cardiac Sciences

Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery

Interventional Cardiology


History of the Term Cardiology:

The word “Cardiology” is derived from the Greek word, Kardia meaning “heart” and logia meaning “study”.

In 1620s, William Harvey first demonstrated the circulation of the blood. During 1903, a dutch physiologist Willem Einthoven discovered Electrocardiography, the measurement of electrical activity in the heart. Radiological evaluation of the heart grew out of german physicist Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen and his experiments with X-rays.

In 1929, a German surgeon Werner Forssmann invented Cardiac catheterization which was further refined by American physiologists, Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards, for measuring the pressure inside the heart, studying normal and abnormal electrical activity in the heart, and visualizing the heart chambers and blood vessels.

Daniel Hale Williams, an American general surgeon who discovered Cardiac surgery. In 1893, he performed the first open-heart surgery on a young man named James Cornish. C. Walton Lillehei is regarded as the “Father of Open-Heart Surgery” for his achievements in the field of cardiac surgery.

Technological innovation and drug development continued to shape the field of cardiac science during the latter half of the 20th century.

Cardiology is a branch of medicine that focuses on the diseases of the heart and circulatory system. In other words, cardiology involves medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart problems, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology.

Cardiology is classified into major branches such as Cardiac electrophysiology, Clinical cardiac electrophysiology, Cardiogeriatrics, Echocardiography, Interventional Cardiology, Nuclear Cardiology and Pediatric Cardiology.

Cardiac Surgery is a branch of medical specialty that focuses on the surgical treatment of heart or great vessels.

Types of Cardiac surgery:

Aortic surgery, Aortic valve surgery, Arrhythmia surgery, Congenital heart surgery, Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, Left ventricular assist device (LVAD), Left ventricular remodeling/surgical ventricular restoration, Myectomy/myotomy, Transmyocardial revascularization (TMR), Valvular surgery and Heart transplant.


The Heart is an important organ in our body, without which life does not exist. Our heart pumps blood through blood vessels of the circulatory system, transports nutrients, oxygen and hormones throughout the body and remove metabolic waste such as carbon dioxide and nitrogenous wastes.

Heart disease refers to any defect of the heart, including blood vessels and circulatory system. Some of the Heart diseases are coronary artery disease, Heart rhythm problems and heart defects from birth.

A Cardiologist is a doctor or physician who specializes in the diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases and conditions related to heart and blood vessels.

A Cardiac surgeon is a doctor or physician who specializes in performing surgeries related to heart and blood vessels to repair the disorders of the Cardiovascular system.

General signs and Symptoms:

Based on the heart disease or condition, some of the common signs and symptoms include Chest pain, Pain in neck, jaw, throat, upper abdomen or back, Cold sweat, Weakness, Nausea, Fatigue, Sweating, Slow Heartbeat, Palpitations, Swelling in legs, feet and ankles.

Heart defects in infants and children are poor weight gain, cyanosis, fast breathing and poor feeding, inability to exercise and recurring lung infections.

Heart defects may be caused due to damage in the whole or a part of the heart, damage to the coronary arteries or inadequate supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart.

If you are experiencing any of the above symptoms or unsure about heart disease, then consult the Best Cardiologist in Bangalore at Aster CMI hospital, which is one of the leading Heart Hospital in Bangalore.


As cardiologist will conduct a thorough physical examination which includes Blood pressure, Blood test, Auscultation etc. Based on your medical history and current health condition, your cardiologist will recommend further diagnostic procedures such as:

  • Electrocardiogram
  • Holter monitoring
  • Echocardiogram
  • Stress test
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • Cardiac computerized tomography (CT) scan
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Get treated from our Top Heart Surgeons in Bangalore who are highly-experienced to treat a wide range of heart diseases and conditions.


How do I know I have heart disease that needs to be consulted with a heart specialist?

Heart disease symptoms could range from no symptoms to chest discomforts or pains to a heart attack. Various heart diseases have different symptoms and indicators. For example, arrhythmia may have no symptoms at all or may include fluttering in the chest, chest pain, fainting or dizziness, while cardiac arrest could cause a loss of consciousness and even unresponsiveness. If you notice persistent trouble walking, speaking and understanding, paralysis or numbness of the face, arms or legs, abnormal heart rhythms, blue-tinted skin, shortness of breath, failure to feed or develop normally, or difficulty in swallowing, you must consult a cardiologist. If you have a family history of cardiac issues, you should regularly consult with a good heart specialist to rule out any complications.

Can the heart diseases be prevented?

Yes, a good heart specialist can help you prevent heart diseases before they become a problem. The best cardiologists will advise that most of the heart-related problems are a direct consequence of our dietary habits and lifestyle. Adopting a healthy lifestyle like watching one’s weight, blood pressure and keeping a check on diabetes could help in preventing and managing the heart diseases, even avoiding heart surgery.

Even the cardiovascular diseases that you may have inherited through your genes are preventable, according to heart specialists. Cardiologists recommend regular check-ups every 4-5 years after the age of 20 and once every year after the age of 40 for early diagnosis of heart diseases. Comprehensive Diagnostic check ups like the Comprehensive Heart Screening Package for early diagnosis as well as control of risk factors to help you manage your heart conditions through fast diagnosis, early intervention, regular checkups, and holistic care. When it comes to good health, prevention is better than cure.

What are the various types of Heart Diseases treated by a cardiologist?

Various types of heart diseases affect different parts of the heart or occur in different ways.

- Coronary Artery Disease or CAD
- Arrhythmia – Bradycardia, Irregular or extra heartbeats, Ventricular Tachycardia (VT), Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT):
- Congenital Heart Disease- Deformities of the heart that have been present since birth. These include - Septal defects, Cyanotic heart disease.
- Heart Defects involving valves - Aortic stenosis, Bicuspid aortic valve, Mitral valve prolapse, Pulmonary stenosis, and Subaortic stenosis.
- Heart Failure is one of the most prevalent forms of heart diseases according to heart specialists.

What is the difference between an interventional cardiologist and a cardiac surgeon?

An interventional cardiologist is a cardiologist who can diagnose and treat heart diseases as well as congenital and structural heart conditions using catheter-based procedures, such as angioplasty and stenting for clogged arteries, closing small holes in the heart or place specialized devices like pacemakers or defibrillators to treat heart problems.

It is the cardiac surgeons (known as cardiothoracic surgeons) who generally perform surgery of the heart and chest, commonly referred to as Heart surgeons, they operate on the organs of the chest and upper abdomen. They work on the heart, the lungs, the oesophagus, its vessels and valves, and major large blood vessels in the chest such as the aorta or pulmonary artery to treat complex heart diseases using procedures like CABG (heart bypass) surgery.

What technologies are available at Aster CMI for treatment of heart diseases?

With time and improvement in technology, minimally invasive heart surgeries (MICS) have now become a norm with the best heart surgeons in Bangalore, especially at Aster CMI. Taking things further, our hospital is the only one in Karnataka that has introduced Robotic cardiac surgeries, particularly for valve repairs. The Cardiac Sciences Department at Aster CMI Hospital is one of the best cardiology hospitals in Bangalore and is among the first in the city to have a Hybrid Cath Lab, which allows for complex procedures incorporating intervention and surgeries required on a patient to be performed in a single space.

Why should I choose Aster CMI hospital for my heart related problems?

At Aster CMI Hospital we have some of the top cardiologists in Bangalore who can provide best surgical and interventional treatments for a wide range of cardiac diseases like heart attacks (coronary heart disease), heart failure, atrial fibrillation or arrhythmia, and congenital heart diseases, such as atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, AV canal defect and total anomalous drainage of the pulmonary veins. Angiograms, coronary angioplasty, Mitral valve repair/replacement, Aortic valve repair/replacement and bypass surgery (CABG surgery) as well as the highly complex cases of paediatric cardiac surgeries, aortic aneurysms, and heart transplants.

Aster CMI Hospital is one of the top heart specialist hospitals in Bangalore. We have some of the best cardiologists in Bangalore who are also recognized globally for their excellent contribution in cardiology treatments.